自序

“中国的城市化与美国的高科技发展将是深刻影响21世纪人类发展的两大主题。”

诺贝尔经济学奖获得者──斯蒂格利茨

"China's urbanization and America's development of high-tech will be the two great themes to impact profoundly human development in 21st century".

The winner of the Nobel Prize on economy—Stiglitz

进入21世纪以来,中国经济持续快速发展,城市化进程不断加快,成为贯穿本世纪的主题。在此背景下,如何确保城市战略发展方向的准确性,如何实现城市的可持续发展,如何最大限度地构建城市核心竞争力成为城市可持续发展的核心。因此,在这个时代,规划设计行业肩负起此项重任。毫不夸张地说,当下是属于规划设计行业的,是规划设计行业展示自我的大好时机──在此过程中,责任与压力并存。

路漫漫其修远兮,吾将上下而求索。回首改革开放以来的30年,我国的城市规划虽说取得了很大进展,但是却陷入了“千城一面”的泥潭。城市是人类文明的主要组成部分,城市也是伴随人类文明与进步发展起来的。随着工商业的发展,城市还成为了传播文明的场所。遗憾的是,当下的中国城市,文化缺失、内涵不足、特色不明、协调不力,整体上略显浮躁,没有成为传播当地文明的有效载体──中国城市处于病态中,就像每个人从出生到成长都会不同程度地经历病痛一样,这是当今中国社会形态下所必经的阶段。缓解病情、治愈疾病,提高免疫力,规划设计师责无旁贷。

没有一味地批判,没有一味地指责,仅仅是作为一个规划人对我国规划设计现状进行反思。

反思一:规划设计行业体制

在计划经济体制下规划设计工作主要是政府行为,规划设计行业统一在事业编制下,规划设计任务由上级主管部门统一下发,行业竞争及压力有限。进入市场经济体制后,这一特殊行业现象在很大程度上延续下来,与此共同沿袭下来的还有几十年来一成不变的规划设计模式,缺乏与时俱进的创新思维,结果便是规划设计中规中矩,却缺乏特色,缺乏灵气,缺乏创意,更缺乏社会责任感。

反思二:规划设计模式 

一个项目需要多个专业之间的配合才能完成。然而这些相关专业都是各自独立的,专业之间各自为政,本位主义较强。一个项目仅凭一个专业解决问题是远远不够的。现状是:从策划、规划到设计缺乏协调,严重脱节,导致规划逐步细化后与最初构想相去甚远。       

反思三:规划设计教育 

规划设计师的职责是宏观地制定区域发展路线,定格区域发展基调,合理地进行区域功能布局。这需要宏观经济学、社会学、历史学等大量学科的知识积累,只有这样才能站在正确的战略高度上去计划区域未来的发展。在现今的教育制度下,更多的规划设计专业将大量精力放在了诸如行业规划标准,管网道路铺设,制图技术等微观战术层面上,对宏观战略的理解把握严重缺乏。除此之外,规划设计行业还需要艺术思维、创新思维的体现,但是现今“正统的”规划设计行业对审美、造型艺术等方面的教育缺乏甚至是空白。很难想象,一个缺乏大局观、缺乏审美眼光的规划设计师如何能使城市摆脱“千城一面”的窘境。

八年前,带着对行业的反思,怀揣着自己的信念,我创办了天海规划设计有限公司。从公司创立之初,我就不断吸取内外部经验教训,进行剖析比对,敢冒“天下之大不韪”,推行了一系列的改革措施:

规划理念方面。在项目规划时最大限度地满足功能需求的同时更强调对规划的核心价值的深入挖掘,对规划的民族性、文化性和本土性的全力彰显并最终使之体现于项目中。

规划模式方面。整合策划、规划、建筑、创意、效果表现、动画等与规划设计密切相关的各个行业于一体,使得规划设计从资源评估、背景分析到战略定位、规划布局、建筑创意、效果表现一气呵成,形成流水线规划模式,最大限度地克服了传统规划设计模式中各个程序脱节的弊端。

八年来,经过60多个项目的成功实践,在市场上赢得许多开发商和政府部门的认同和赞誉。事实证明我的改革与创新是有价值的。现在,我把近十年来的改革创新的规划设计成果分为城市设计、建筑设计、景观设计以及旅游规划四部分集结成册分别命名为“变城记”、“筑魂记”、“梦游记”、“造景记”,用我的挚热和真诚与大家共同交流探讨,同时更希望能与同行们携手为推动全国规划设计行业的改革与发展,贡献绵薄之力。

By 21st century, with the rapid and continual development of economy in China, urbanization has speeded up and become the theme throughout this century. Under this circumstance, the core of sustainable development of cities has depended on how to make sure the right direction of strategic development of cities, accomplish sustainable development and form urban core competitions as strong as possible. And this is the responsibility that the planning and design profession should take. Thus, we dare say that this is the era of planning and design field and the best opportunity for the planning and design unities to express themselves with responsibility and stress.

The way stretches endless ahead, I shall search. What a long journey ahead! 

Although urban planning in our country has made great progress during the thirty years since reform and opening up, it has been put in an awkward situation of "one thousand cities, one appearance". As the main components of human civilization, cities have developed along with the human civilization and progress. With the development of industry and business, cities have become the places spreading local civilization, too. Nevertheless, the current cities, with deficient culture and connotation, unobvious characteristics, and weak coordination abilities, are not successful to disseminate local civilization effectively. Chinese cities are in sick! This is the inevitable period for cities under the current social formation in China just like every people should go through lots of pain in their growth. Releasing sickness and enhancing immunity are the responsibilities of the planners and the planning and design profession.

As there is no absolute criticism, there is no absolute blame. Just as a planning person, I've made reassessment of the current status of the planning and design of our country.

First, system of planning and design

Planning and design is the governmental work during the planned economy that the field of planning and design is controlled by the governmental departments and the tasks of planning and design are arranged by the state, which caused little competition and press in this field. This phenomenon has been lasted after entering market economy, as well as the planning mode which has not changed for many decades and has been lack of innovative ideas. Thus, the planning works are regular and common, without characteristics and soul.

Second, mode of planning and design

Completing a project needs the cooperation of several separate specialties which, however, are leaded by different departments, and it's hard for them to reach a consensus on the project, as a result, the processes of scheme, planning and design are divorced seriously from each other and the initial image is different a lot from real effect, also working efficiency is not in control.

Third, education of planning and design

Urban planners, who are requested to be of large accumulation of knowledge in economics, sociology, and history and so on, take the responsibilities of working out the developing proposal of urban regions macroscopically, determining basic tone of cities and reasonably arranging urban functional districts. Only the ones who are competence enough can design the future development of the cities on a correct strategic view. Under the current educational system, many urban planners only know some about urban functional layout and distribution, various planning norms and setting of pipes and roads, but they are badly lack of macroscopic innovative consciousness. Besides, artistic and innovative thought are needed to be demonstrated in the planning and design works. But the education of aesthetic and art etc. are lost in the existing "orthodox" planning and design profession. It's hard to image how can a planner without overall sense and macro view help cities escape from the awkward situation of "one thousand cities, one appearance".

Eight years ago, I found Tianhai Planning and Design Company with rethinking about this sector and my strong conviction. We have totally discarded traditional operation mode, which was regarded "fighting a rearguard action against the mass of public opinion" at that time.

In the aspect of planning idea, besides meeting the needs of functions, our projects are stressed on excavating deeply the core value and highlighting the nationalities, culture and localities of the planned place so as to show them in the project eventually.

In the aspect of planning mode, the closely relative professions of scheme, planning, architecture, creativity, effect display, and animation etc. have been integrated in a unity, so that the planning and design work can be accomplished smoothly and completely from assessing resources and background analysis to strategic orientation, planning and layout, architectural innovation and displaying effects, so as to avoid maximally the disconnection of each step in the traditional planning and design mode.

More than 60 successful items within 8 years has won accept of many investors and relevant governments and proved that our reformation and innovation are significant. Now, we divide our works based on reform and innovation into four parts: urban design, architectural design, landscape design and tourism planning and named respectively "City Changing", "Spirit Shaping", "Dreamlike Traveling" and "Landscape Building". We hope to communicate with you sincerely and passionately and also make great efforts and contribution along with the people in the same field to the reformation and development of the planning and design field in our country